NO3- هيكل لويس وخصائصه: 19 حقائق كاملة


نترات أو لا3- is a polyatomic ion with molecular mass 62.0049 g/mol. Let us explore the structure and some important characteristics on NO3- موجز.

لا3- له هيكل مستو ثلاثي الزوايا بزاوية رابطة 1200. Nitrogen is attached with three oxygen atoms trough covalent bonds. All these covalent bonds have same length due to resonance. All the compounds of nitrate are water soluble except bismuth oxynitrate.

Let us discuss some relevant topics regarding shape, hybridization, bond angle, solubility of NO3- هيكل لويس أدناه.

كيفية رسم NO3- هيكل لويس؟

Lewis structures are those structural representation in which nonbonding electrons are shown as the electron dots. Let us follow the steps of drawing the lewis structure.

تحديد إلكترونات التكافؤ:  

Both of nitrogen and oxygen are p block element and they have five and six electrons in their valence shell respectively.

اكتشاف الإلكترونات الرابطة:

There is one double bond and two sigma bonds are present between nitrogen and oxygen. Therefore (4×2) =8 electrons are involved in bonding.

اكتشاف الإلكترونات غير المترابطة:

The two oxygen atoms, attached through single covalent bonds, have six and the oxygen attached through double bond with nitrogen atom has four nonbonding electrons respectively.

no3- هيكل لويس
لا3- هيكل لويس

لا3- الرنين هيكل لويس

Resonance is the movement of pi electron cloud to all over the molecule for the purpose of stabilization. Let us draw the resonance structures of nitrate ion.

جميع هياكل الرنين لـ NO3- have equal contribution to its hybrid structure. Total three resonance structures are possible for nitrate ion and all of them are equivalent because of the equal N-O bond length.

The resonance structures help to identify the most stable as well as the hybrid structure of any molecule. Formal charge of each of the atom can also be calculated from resonance structures.

لا3- هيكل الرنين

لا3- شكل هيكل لويس

Lewis structure shape, defined from VSEPR theory, determines the three-dimensional molecular arrangement of the atoms in a molecule. Let us find out the shape of NO3-.

يوفر هيكل لويس shape of NO3- is trigonal planar. It contains three oxygen and one nitrogen atom which are attached with each other by covalent bonds. NO3- gets this trigonal planar shape due to sp2 hybridization of nitrogen atom.

The shape and geometry of this ion are same because nitrogen has no lone pair in nitrate. If nitrogen has any lone pair, the shape will be deviated from its geometry as the lone pairs will involve in lone pair-bond pair repulsion with the N-O bonds.

لا3- المسؤول الرسمي عن هيكل لويس

Resonance hybrid structure helps to calculate the formal charge of each atom in a molecule. Let us calculate the formal charge of NO3-.

صيغة NO3- حساب الشحنة الرسمي هو = {إجمالي عدد إلكترونات التكافؤ - عدد الإلكترونات المتبقية على أنها غير مرتبطة - (عدد الإلكترونات المشاركة في تكوين الرابطة / 2).} شحنة موجبة واحدة على النيتروجين وشحنتين سالبتين على ذرة الأكسجين تجعل الجزيء مشحونًا سالبًا محيط.

  • Formal charge of nitrogen = 5 – 0 – (8/2) = +1
  • Formal charge of each of the oxygen attached through single bond with nitrogen = 6 – 6 – (2/2) = -1
  • Formal charge of oxygen attached through double bond with nitrogen = 6 – 4 – (4/2) = 0
  • الشحنة الرسمية للجزيء كله = + 1-1-1 = 0.

لا3- زاوية هيكل لويس

هيكل لويس angle, determined from the shape of molecule is formed between two covalent bonds and one atom. Let us explain it in detail.

يوفر هيكل لويس angle of NO3- is 1200. It is the actual bond angle of any trigonal planar shaped and sp2 hybridized molecule. Like hybridization, bond angle can also be decided from the VSEPR (valence shell electron pair repulsion) theory.

Nitrate ion is showing its actual bond angle according to its shape and hybridization because of the absence of lone pairs on central atom. These lone pairs involve in lone pair-bond pair repulsion and bond angle will be decreased from its actual angle.

لا3- لويس هيكل الثماني القاعدة

Octet rule depicts that any atom should have eight electrons in its valence shell like its nearest noble gas molecule. Let us find out if the atoms in NO3- الانصياع للقاعدة الثمانية أم لا.

كل الذرات في NO3- اتبع قاعدة الثمانيات بالطريقة التالية-

  • Nitrogen has five valence electrons and it shares three more electrons with the three oxygen atoms. Therefore, octet rule is satisfied in case of nitrogen.
  • Each of the two oxygen atoms (having negatively charged) has six electrons in outer most shell and gets two more electrons from nitrogen and octet is filled up.
  • Rest of the oxygen atom (attached with double bond) is also satisfying octet rule because it shares two electrons with nitrogen with nitrogen.

لا3- أزواج هيكل لويس الوحيد

Lone pairs are considered as those valence electrons which are not exchanged with other atoms through bond formation. Let us discuss on the lone pairs.

صيغة حساب أزواج وحيدة أو إلكترون غير مرتبط في NO3- = total number of valance electron – number of bonded electrons.

  • Number of nonbonded electrons in nitrogen = 5 – 5 = 0
  • Number of nonbonded electrons in negatively charged oxygen atom = 6 – 0 = 6
  • Number of nonbonded electrons in neutral oxygen = 6 – 2 = 4
  • لذلك ، العدد الإجمالي للأزواج الوحيدة في NO3- هو = (6 × 2) + 4 = 16

لا3- إلكترونات التكافؤ

Valence electrons are defined as those electrons which belong to the outer most shell associated with an atom. Let us count the valence electrons of NO3-.

العدد الإجمالي لإلكترونات التكافؤ في NO3- is (3 × 6) + 5 = 23 ومن determined from the summation of the valence electrons of one nitrogen and three oxygen atoms . Being a p block element, nitrogen and oxygen have five and six electrons in their 2s and 2p orbitals respectively.

Nitrogen and oxygen have completely filled 2s orbital (2s2) and 2p orbital which are filled with three electrons in case of nitrogen (2p3) وأربعة إلكترونات في ذرة الأكسجين (2 ص4). يعتبر هذان المداريان بمثابة غلاف تكافؤ.

لا3- تهجين

Concept of mixing two atomic orbitals to generate a new hybrid orbital is called as hybridization. Let us discuss about it.

تهجين النيتروجين في NO3- هو sp2. 2s and 2p orbitals of nitrogen are involved in this hybridization with three oxygen atoms. As nitrogen has no electrons left as nonbonding, all the five electrons are involved in N-O bond formation.

Molecular geometry can only be determined from the orbital hybridization of the molecule. All of the sp2 hybridized atom always show trigonal planar shape in absence of lone pairs.

لا يوجد3- صلب؟

Physical state of any molecule depends upon the nature of the molecule or ion. Let us discuss it.

لا يمكن التعليق عليه إذا كان الجواب بالنفي3- is solid, liquid or gas because it is just a polyatomic ion consisting nitrogen and oxygen atoms. To comment on the physical state of NO3-, it should be attached with any metal or any atom and then only it can be determined.

لماذا وكيف لا3- ليست صلبة؟

لا3- cannot be a solid substance because it is not a compound, a polyatomic ion. Boiling point can only be measured for any compound, not any ion. If it forms any compound, then the physical state of it can be decided. For example, HNO3 مركب سائل بينما نترات الصوديوم مادة صلبة.

لا يوجد3- يذوب في الماء؟

The solubility depends upon the nature (polar or nonpolar) of solute and solvent molecules.

معظم NO3- compounds are soluble in water. The compounds containing nitrate ion are polar in most of the times and polar compounds are always soluble in polar solvent like water.

لماذا وكيف لا3- قابلة للذوبان في الماء؟

لا3- المركبات قابلة للذوبان في الماء لأن جزيئات الماء تشكل جوًا أيونيًا حول جزيئات الذائبة القطبية. تغطي النهاية الموجبة للماء النهاية السالبة للمذاب وتشكل نهاية الأكسجين في الماء الغلاف الجوي الأيوني حول الطرف الموجب للمذاب.

For example, the following compounds of NO3- are soluble in water-

  • نترات الصوديوم
  • حمض النيتريك
  • نترات الكالسيوم

لا يوجد3- قطبي أم غير قطبي؟

Polarity or non-polarity depends upon the arrangement of bonds and the electronegativities of the molecule. Let us discuss whether NO3- قطبي أو غير قطبي.

لا3- is polar because it has trigonal shape and all the atoms in it are highly electronegative. There is no cancellation of bond dipole in NO3-. لذلك ، يحتوي على عزم دائم ثنائي القطب.

لماذا وكيف لا3- هل القطبية؟

قطبية NO3- يعتمد على شكله المثلثي. دعونا نناقش أدناه.

لا3- is polar because one N-O bond moment cannot be cancelled by another N-O bond. If one bond dipole will be cancelled by another then, the net dipole moment of NO3- سيكون صفراً وسيعتبر جزيء غير قطبي.

لا يوجد3- حمض أم قاعدة؟

For acidity or basicity of any compound, it should be determined whether it is electron rich or not. Let us find out it.

لا3- is considered as a conjugate base because it is electron rich polyatomic ion. It behaves as lewis base because it can donate the excess electron density to any lewis acid.

لماذا وكيف لا3- هي قاعدة؟

كونه مركب نترات فلزية مثل NaNO3، لا3- لقد تكون. دعونا نركز عليه.

لا3- is a base because the excess electron density of it can be donated through the oxygen atom. For nitric acid, NO3- can form a covalent bond with hydrogen, a lewis acid or electron deficient species through oxygen end.

Therefore, the excess electron density of oxygen is shifted towards hydrogen through the new covalent bond between oxygen and hydrogen.

لا يوجد3- إلكتروليت؟

Any compound can only be electrolyte if it can be dissociated in two oppositely charged ions in aqueous solution. Let us explain it whether NO3- هو المنحل بالكهرباء أم لا.

لا3- can only be electrolyte if it forms compound with any metal atom or hydrogen. For example, both the sodium nitrate, nitric acid are electrolyte in nature.

لماذا وكيف لا3- ليس بالكهرباء؟

لا3- will be an electrolyte and can be dissociated into two opposite ions if it is attached with an atom to form a molecule. Therefore it cannot be commented whether NO3- can be electrolyte or can conduct electricity.

لا يوجد3- الأيونية أو التساهمية؟

Ionic or covalent character depends upon the presence of ionic or covalent bond. Let us give an overview on it.

لا3- is covalent because nitrogen is attached with the three oxygen atoms through covalent bonds which are formed by the sharing of electrons between the constituent atoms.

لماذا وكيف لا3- هو مركب تساهمي؟

Sharing of electrons between the atoms makes a molecule a covalent compound. Let us talk about this.

لا3- تساهمية بسبب وجود روابط تساهمية. تتشكل هذه الروابط التساهمية بسبب مشاركة الإلكترونات بين النيتروجين والأكسجين. لا يمكن تكوين الروابط الأيونية إلا إذا تم نقل أزواج الإلكترون بالكامل من الذرة الكهربية الإيجابية إلى الذرة الكهربية. لذلك ، فهو ليس مركبًا أيونيًا.

في الختام

Nitrate is a water-soluble covalent compound with significant uses in different fields. It is used as fertilizer in agriculture industry. It also behaves as a good oxidizing agent in different chemical reactions.

أديتي روي

مرحبًا ، أنا Aditi Ray ، شركة كيمياء صغيرة ومتوسطة الحجم على هذه المنصة. لقد أكملت تخرجي في الكيمياء من جامعة كلكتا وبعد التخرج من جامعة تكنو إنديا مع تخصص في الكيمياء غير العضوية. أنا سعيد جدًا لكوني جزءًا من عائلة Lambdageeks وأود أن أشرح الموضوع بطريقة مبسطة. دعنا نتواصل من خلال LinkedIn-https: //www.linkedin.com/in/aditi-ray-a7a946202

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