الخصائص الكيميائية للمنغنيز (25 حقيقة يجب أن تعرفها)


Manganese is only surpassed by iron among the transition elements when it comes to abundance in the Earth’s crust. Let us study further facts about manganese in detail.

Manganese(Mn) is a transition metal that is naturally present in many different minerals, although it is never found on its own. It is a tough, brittle, white metal. One of the most prevalent elements in the crust of the Earth, manganese is found in great abundance on the planet’s surface.

Let us discuss the chemical properties of manganese, including its atomic symbol, electronic configuration, allotropic forms, ionisation energy and isotopes.

Manganese symbol

A رمز representing an atom can be one or two characters long. Let us examine the atomic symbol of manganese.

Manganese is represented by the symbol “Mn” in the periodic table.

manganese chemical properties
Manganese Element

Manganese group in periodic table

The periodic table comprises a column of chemical elements. Let us discuss which group manganese belongs to in the periodic table.

Manganese(Mn) belongs to the 7th مجموعة الجدول الدوري. 

Manganese period in periodic table

Periods which are horizontal rows, specify the location and properties of an element. Let us look at the position of manganese in the الجدول الدوري.

Manganese belongs to the 4th فترة الجدول الدوري. 

Manganese block in periodic table

The block is made up of an element that shares the same physical and chemical characteristics. Let us explore the block of manganese.

Manganese is a d-block element and is known as a transition element.

Manganese atomic number

The atomic number of a material is the sum of all the protons in its nucleus. Let us discuss the atomic number of manganese.

Manganese is a synthetic element with the atomic number 25. It consists of 25 protons and 25 electrons.

Manganese atomic Weight

Atomic mass units are used to express an atom’s average mass as it appears in nature. Let us discuss the atomic weight of manganese.

Manganese has an atomic weight of 54.9380 g.mol-1.

Manganese Electronegativity according to Pauling

The term “E.N.” refers to an atom’s capacity to draw electrons toward itself when it combines forces with a more electronegative atom. Let us look at manganese’s electronegativity.

Manganese has a 1.55 electronegativity value on a Pauling scale, which is comparable to other elements in the 7th group.

Manganese atomic Density

Atomic density is the ratio of atoms or nuclides in a molecule to their volume. Let us check the atomic density of manganese.

The density of manganese at room temperature should be 7.21 g/cm3. But when it melts and reaches its melting point, it turns into a liquid with a density of 5.95 g/cm3.

Manganese melting point

The melting point establishes a state of balance between a solid and a liquid. Let us determine manganese’s melting point.

Manganese has a melting point of 1519 K (1246 °C, 2275 °F).

Manganese boiling point

The temperature at which boiling takes place for a specific pressure is known as the boiling point of a liquid. Let us find the boiling point of manganese.

Manganese has a boiling point of 2334 K (2061 °C, 3742 °F).

Manganese Vanderwaals radius

From the contact lengths of non-bonding atoms in nearby molecules or atoms, Van der Waals radii are computed. Let us examine the Vander Waals radius of manganese.

The van der Waals radius of manganese is 197 pm (1pm=1*10‑12 م).

Manganese ionic radius

The ionic radius of d-block metals depends on the coordination number and whether the metal is in a high or low spin state. Let us look at the نصف القطر الأيوني المنغنيز. 

In Mn(I) and Mn(VII), the Pauling ionic radius of manganese is 75 and 46 pm, respectively. The table below shows the various coordination centres and ionic radii of manganese.

المنغنيز
ايون
(Mnn+ )
تنسيق
الهيكلية
أيوني
نصف القطر
(1pm=1*10‑12 م)
Mn(II)4-coordinate,
رباعي السطوح
80pm
Mn(II)6-coordinate,
ثماني السطوح
81pm
Mn(IV)4-coordinate,
رباعي السطوح
53pm
Mn(IV)6-coordinate,
ثماني السطوح
67pm
Mn(II)8-coordinate110pm
The ionic radius of Manganese

Manganese isotopes

Isotopes can be separated from one another based on how many mass units they have. Let us identify the isotopes of manganese.

Manganese has one stable isotope (55-Mn) and 25 radioisotopes. 53-Mn, 54-Mn, and 52-Mn each have half-lives of 3.7 million years, 312.3 days, and 5.591 days, respectively. The most common isotopes of manganese are listed below:

نظائر
المنغنيز
الذري
عدد
الذري
كتلة
نصف الحياةالاضمحلال
طريقة
ابنتك
نظائريا
52Mn2551.94556555.591dβ+52Cr
53Mn2552.94129013.7 × 106yEC53Cr
54Mn2553.9403589312.03dEC 99.99%
β-(2.9 × 10-4%)
β+ (5.7 × 10-7%)
54Fe
54Cr
55Mn2554.9380451مستقرمستقرمستقر
Manganese isotopes (EC=Electron capture)

Manganese electronic shell

Each of the electronic shells that envelop the nucleus has a specific number of electrons. Let us examine Manganese’s electronic shell.

Manganese has an electronic shell structure of 2, 8, 13, and 2, around its nucleus, which has the s, p, and d orbitals. 

Manganese electron configurations

The arrangement of an element’s electrons within its orbitals is known as its electron configuration. Let us examine the electron configuration of manganese.

Manganese has the following electron configuration: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d5 4s2 or [Ar] 3d5 4s2.

Manganese energy of first ionisation

و1st ionisation energy is the force required to remove the outer shell electrons out of the last orbital. Let us discuss the 1st ionisation energy of manganese.

Manganese requires 717.3 kJ/mol of energy for removing the first electrons from the 4s orbitals ([Ar] 3d54s2; Mn1+→Mn2+) or from the last subshell.

Manganese energy of second ionisation

The second I.E. is the force needed to free the most loosely bonded electron from a substance with a positive charge. Let us check manganese’s second ionisation energy.

The second ionisation energy of manganese is 1509.0 kJ/mol as removing the second electron would be simpler because Mn would then be able to maintain the stability of a partially filled 3d subshell: ([Ar] 3d54s1; Mn1+→Mn2+).

Manganese energy of third ionisation

A third I.E. is produced when the two electrons from the outermost shell of an atom orbital with a +2 charge are removed. Let us figure out manganese’s third ionisation energy.

The third ionisation energy of Manganese is 3248 kJ/mol. The third electron must be eliminated from the stable configuration of Mn2+, hence the third ionisation energy is quite high.

Manganese oxidation states

Depending on their oxidation state, atoms in chemical complexes can undergo oxidation to various degrees. Let us check the oxidation state of manganese.

Manganese exists in a variety of oxidation states, such as 3, 2, 1, 0, +1, +2, +3, +4, +5, +6, +7. Depending on its level of oxidation, Mn can be an oxide that is acidic, basic, or amphoteric. An oxidation state of +2 is the most stable one. 

The oxidation state of different Mn molecules are shown in the following table:

أكسدة
دول
Mn ion
مركب
+2MnCl2,
منكو3,
MNO
+3MnF3,
Mn(OAc)3,
Mn2O3
+4MNO2
+6K2MNO4
+7KMnO4,
Mn2O7
The oxidation state of Manganese ion

Manganese CAS number

The CAS number is one particular form of number, which is a distinctive identifying number issued globally. Let us look for the CAS number for manganese.

The CAS number of the Manganese molecule is 7439-96-5.

Manganese ChemSpider ID

Database of free chemical structures, their properties, and related information are easily accessible through ChemSpider. Let us check manganese’s Chemspider ID.

Manganese’s Chem Spider ID is 22372.

Manganese allotropic forms

The allotropes have unique physical features, despite having identical chemical properties. Let us check the manganese allotrope.

Manganese appears in four allotropic variations, with the so-called alpha phase’s the complicated cubic structure being the only one that is stable at room temperature. When temperatures are normal, the alpha form is stable. At room temperature, the gamma form transforms into the alpha form. 

The gamma form is soft, flexible, and simple to cut in comparison to the alpha form.

Manganese chemical classification

Chemical attributes are categorised using the reactivity and other qualities of chemical elements. Let us talk about the chemical properties of manganese.

The following is a list of the chemical characteristics of manganese:

  1. Manganese reacts with dilute mineral acids to produce divalent manganous salts and hydrogen.
  2. Manganese decomposes in water at 20 degrees.
  3. Manganese reacts aggressively with NO7 and oxidants.
  4. Incandescent reactions are seen between manganese and phosphorus, nitryl fluoride, and nitric acid.
  5. The +7 oxidation state of manganese is present in the permanganate ion (MnO4-).

Manganese state at room temperature

Room temperature or Standard temperature is defined as a comfortable range of 20 to 25 °C. Let us examine manganese at its room temperature.

Manganese is solid at its standard or room temperature(298K). 

Is Manganese paramagnetic?

Paramagnetic Materials are those that have unpaired electrons. Let us check the Manganese paramagnetic property.

Manganese and its common ions are paramagnetic. This is because 5 unpaired electrons in the d orbitals will have spin quantum numbers of either +1/2 or -1/2 and will be unpaired. As a result, manganese is atomically paramagnetic. 

  1. It will show molar magnetic susceptibility of value (α) +529.0×10-6 cm3/mol (293 K). 
  2. Solid manganese is anti-ferromagnetic because, in the solid state, the magnetic moments of the two spin states combine and effectively cancel out the magnetic fields.

في الختام

Manganese is the most significant of the ore types are mostly oxides which contain manganese dioxide (MnO7) in the form of pyrolusite and romanechite. The Earth’s crust has the 12th greatest amounts of manganese. Seawater contains 2 x 10-4 mg/L of manganese, which is a lot (parts per million).

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