Lithium is the lightest alkali metal, a soft, shiny white color. Let us study some facts about Lithium.
Lithium is a highly reactive metal that floats on water to produce lithium hydroxide and hydrogen gas. Lithium forms its Li+ cation, but it cannot produce its Li-أنيون.
In detail below, let us discuss some more chemical properties like melting point, boiling point, ionization energy, and oxidation state.
Li represents the chemical symbol of Lithium. Lithium is originally derived from the Greek word lithos, meaning “stone.”
Lithium group in the periodic table
Lithium is present in group 1, which has similar properties to sodium, potassium, etc.
Lithium period in the periodic table
Lithium is present in period 2. Due to its small size, it is placed in the beginning groups of the periodic table.
Lithium block in the periodic table
Lithium belongs to the s-block (Alkali metal) of the periodic table.
Lithium atomic number
يوفر العدد الذري of the Lithium atom is 3.
Lithium Atomic Weight
يوفر الوزن الذري of Lithium is 6.941 g/mol.
Lithium electronegativity according to Pauling
Pauling scale estimated that the electronegative value of Lithium is found to be 0.98. In the alkali metal group, as we go top to bottom, Lithium has a higher electronegativity because its small size and outermost electron is closer to the nucleus. Therefore nucleus easily attracts electrons.
Lithium atomic Density
Lithium has an atomic density of 0.534 g/cm3, the lightest alkali metal.
Lithium melting point
يوفر نقطة الانصهار of Lithium is 180.5 ⁰C. Lithium has a high melting point in the alkali metal because of its small size. This results in high ionization energy; therefore, binding energy in its crystal lattice is high. Hence a large amount of heat is required for the state change from solid to liquid.
Lithium boiling point
The boiling point of the Lithium atom is 1,342 ⁰C. In the group 1 element, Lithium has a high boiling point because of its small atomic size and thus has a strong intermolecular force. Therefore, high energy is required to vaporize a liquid alkali metal.
Lithium van der Waals radius
يوفر van der Waal’s radius of Lithium is 182 pm.
Lithium Ionic radius
The ionic radius of Li+ ion is 0.076 nm. Ionic radius is only found in ionic molecules; therefore, Lithium having a +1 charge is formed when one electron is lost from the lithium atom and shows an ionic radius of 0.076 nm.
Isotopes are two or more species of an atom with distinct atomic mass numbers but identical atomic numbers.
Lithium has 10 isotopes which range from lithium-3 to lithium-12. The seven important lithium isotopes are discussed below.
|Isotopes of Lithium element||نصف الحياة||الخصائص|
|Lithium 3 – 3Li||-||ويسمى أيضا triproton which consists of 3 protons and 0 neutrons. This isotope is decayed by proton |
|الليثيوم 4 - 4Li||91(9) ys||Shortest-lived isotope of Lithium which decays by proton emission. It consists of 3 protons and 1 neutron.|
|الليثيوم 6 - 6Li||مستقر||Most stable isotope of lithium which is a natural isotope. The nuclear reaction in certain stars also produces it. In nuclear fusion, Lithium-6 is used to produce tritium and helium when it is emitted with neutrons.|
|الليثيوم 7 - 7Li||مستقر||Most abundant isotope on earth, containing 4 protons, 3 protons, and 3 electrons. It is used in preparing nuclear-grade ion-exchange membranes, lithium fluoride coolant, and lithium-7 hydroxide in the PWR cooling |
|الليثيوم 8 - 8Li||838.7 (3) ms||longest-lived radioisotope of Lithium|
|الليثيوم 11 - 11Li||8.75(6) ms||It decays by neutron and beta emission to Be-9, Be-10 and Be-11 isotopes.|
|الليثيوم 12 - 12Li||-||It has a shorter half-life which decays by neutron emission into lithium-11 isotopes|
Lithium electronic shell
An electronic shell is a group of atomic orbitals that electrons around the atomic nucleus follow it.
The electronic shell of Lithium consists of 2,1. “K shell,” which is the closest shell of the nucleus, consists of 2 electrons, and the “2 shell” or “L shell” holds 1 electron in the lithium atom.
Lithium energy of first ionization
The first ionization energy of Lithium is 519 KJ/mol. A small amount of energy is required to remove only one electron from the outermost 2s orbitals.
Lithium energy of second ionization
The second ionization energy of Lithium is 7298 KJ/mol, which is higher than the first ionization energy. After removing 1 electron, Lithium attains a stable noble gas configuration. Hence a large amount of energy is required to remove the 2nd electron from the lithium atom.
Lithium energy of third ionization
The third ionization energy of Lithium is 11,816 KJ/mol. Removal of 3rd electron in 1s orbital, which is closer to the nucleus, requires more energy. There is a greater electrostatic attraction between the electron and the nucleus.
Lithium oxidation states
يوفر حالة الأكسدة of Lithium is +1. In the outermost shell, it has 1 electron; when 1 electron is removed, it forms a +1 ion.
Lithium electron configurations
The electronic configuration of Lithium is 1s22s1, as it has 3 electrons.
Lithium CAS number
The CAS number of Lithium is 7439-93-2.
Lithium ChemSpider ID
The ChemSpider ID of Lithium is 2293625.
Lithium allotropic forms
Allotropy is the property of an element that exhibits two or more different forms in the same physical phase.
Lithium does not have any allotropic forms.
Lithium chemical classification
Lithium is classified as an alkali metal, the first member of this group. Monoxide and peroxide are formed in the reaction with oxygen.
Lithium state at room temperature
Lithium is a solid at room temperature. Lithium has a melting point of 180.5 ⁰C, higher than room temperature. Therefore, it will exist in a solid state.
Is Lithium paramagnetic?
The paramagnetic property of the molecule has a positive, small susceptibility to magnetic fields and attraction to magnets.
Lithium is paramagnetic. They have 1 unpaired electron in the 2s orbitals, which makes the lithium atom paramagnetic.
Lithium is the first member of an alkali metal. The lightest element has an atomic density of 0.534 g/cm3. They are paramagnetic. Out of 10 isotopes of Lithium, stable isotopes are lithium-6 and lithium-7.