Holmium Properties (25 Facts You Should Know)


Ho or holmium is a rare earth element belonging to the lanthanide series. Let us discuss holmium in this article.

Holmium is a soft, silvery, and malleable metal. It reacts with water and burns in the air when heated. Monazite and gadolinite are the minerals of the holmium where the metal is extracted by the ion-exchange method.

In this article, we will discuss the position of holmium in the periodic table, its melting as well as boiling point, oxidation state, ionization energy, allotrope, isotopes and many other facts.

1. Holmium symbol

The atomic symbol of Holmium is “Ho” which is coming from the English alphabet. As H is used for the atomic symbol of hydrogen so we used “Ho” as the abbreviation of the element.

Holmium Symbol

2. Holmium group in the periodic table

The group of Holmium in the periodic table is unknown because all lanthanide elements are present in between the 3rd و 4th groups of the periodic table. The poor shielding effect of 4f is responsible for the lanthanide contraction.

3. Holmium period in the periodic table

Holmium belongs to period 6 in the periodic table because it has more than 54 electrons in the valence shell. Up to period 5, there will be 54th العناصر في وضع جيد ، لذا فإن الإلكترونات الثلاثين المتبقية تحصل على الـ 13th period in the lanthanide series.

4. Holmium block in the periodic table

Holmium is an و - بلوك element because the valence electrons are present in the f orbital. Ho also has s, p, and d orbitals but the outermost electrons are present in the 4f orbital according to the Aufbau principle.

5. Holmium atomic number

The atomic number of Holmium is 67, which means it has 67 protons because the number of protons is always equal to the number of electrons.

6. Holmium atomic Weight

The atomic weight of Holmium is 164 on the 12C scale which means the weight of Holmium is the 164/12th part of the weight of the carbon element. The actual weight of Ho is 164.93 due to the presence of different isotopes of different weights.

7. Holmium Electronegativity according to Pauling

The electronegativity of Holmium is 1.23 according to the Pauling scale. Ho is rare earth metal so it possesses an electropositive character which reflects in its electronegativity value.

8. Holmium atomic Density

The atomic density of Holmium is 8.88 g/cm3 which can be calculated by dividing the mass of Holmium by its volume.

يتم حساب الكثافة بواسطة الصيغة ، الكثافة الذرية = الكتلة الذرية / الحجم الذري.

9. Holmium melting point

The melting point of Holmium lies between 14740 C to 1747K temperature because it is ductile metal so the van der Waal’s force of attraction in the crystal form is high.

10. Holmium boiling point

The boiling point of Holmium is 26950C to 2968K because it is a heavier metal and metal needs more energy to boil off to gain the same pressure as the atmosphere.

11. Holmium Van der Waals radius

The Van der Waal’s radius of Holmium is 233 pm because it has 6s which has more spatial distribution but also has relativistic contraction and 4f orbital so it has a poor screening effect. So, the nucleus attraction force for the outermost orbital increases, and this decreases the radius.

  • نصف قطر فان دير وال هو ، Rv = دAA / 2
  • dAA هي المسافة بين مجالين متجاورين للجزيء الذري أو مجموع نصف قطر ذرتين.

12. Holmium ionic radius

The ionic radius of Holmium is 233 pm which is the same as the covalent radius because for Holmium the cation and anion are the same and it is not an ionic molecule. Rather, it forms by the covalent interaction between two Holmium atoms.

13. Holmium isotopes

تسمى العناصر التي لها نفس عدد الإلكترونات ولكن بأعداد كتل مختلفة نظائر of the original element. Let us discuss the isotopes of Holmium.

Holmium has 69 isotopes depending on the neutral numbers which are –

  • 140Ho
  • 141Ho
  • 141mHo
  • 142Ho
  • 143Ho
  • 144Ho
  • 145Ho
  • 145mHo
  • 146Ho
  • 147Ho
  • 148Ho
  • 148mHo
  • 149Ho
  • 149m1Ho
  • 149m2Ho
  • 150Ho
  • 150m1Ho
  • 150m2Ho
  • 151Ho
  • 151mHo
  • 152Ho
  • 152m1Ho
  • 152m2Ho
  • 153Ho
  • 153m1Ho
  • 153m2Ho
  • 154Ho
  • 154mHo
  • 155Ho
  • 155mHo
  • 156Ho
  • 156m1Ho
  • 156m2Ho
  • 157Ho
  • 158Ho
  • 158m1Ho
  • 158m2Ho
  • 159Ho
  • 159mHo
  • 160Ho
  • 160m1Ho
  • 160m2Ho
  • 161Ho
  • 161mHo
  • 162Ho
  • 162mHo
  • 163Ho
  • 163mHo
  • 164Ho
  • 164mHo
  • 165Ho
  • 166Ho
  • 166m1Ho
  • 166m2Ho
  • 167Ho
  • 167mHo
  • 168Ho
  • 168m1Ho
  • 168m2Ho
  • 168m3Ho
  • 169Ho
  • 170Ho
  • 170mHo
  • 171Ho
  • 172Ho
  • 173Ho
  • 174Ho
  • 175Ho

Among 69 isotopes only 6 isotopes of Holmium are stable which are discussed below –

النظائرطبيعي
وفرة
نصف الحياةينبعث منها
الجسيمات
رقم
النيوترون
163Hoاصطناعي4570 Y96
164Hoاصطناعيدقيقة 2997
165Hoو ان آكثر من 100%مستقرN / A98
166Hoاصطناعي26.73 مساءβ99
166m1Hoاصطناعي1200 YN / A99
167Hoاصطناعي3.1 مساءβ100
Isotopes of Holmium

 

14. Holmium electronic shell

The shell surrounding the nucleus as per principal quantum number and holding the electrons is called an electronic shell. Let us discuss the electronic shell of Holmium.

The electronic shell distribution of Holmium is 2 8 18 29 8 2 because it has s, p, d, and f orbitals around the nucleus. Since it has more than 54 electrons and to arrange 67 electrons it needs 1 و 2 و 3 و 4 و 5 و 6 و 7th المدارات.

15. Holmium electron configurations

The electronic configuration of Holmium is 1s2  2s2  2p6  3s2  3p6  3d10  4s2  4p6  4d10  4f11  5s2  5p6  6s2 لأنه يحتوي على 58 إلكترونًا ويجب وضع تلك الإلكترونات في أقرب مدار من مدارات النواة s و p و d و f و يرمز لها بـ [Xe] 4f116s2.

16. Holmium energy of first ionization

The first ionization value for Holmium is 581 KJ / mol لأن الإلكترون يُزال من المدار 6s الذي يخضع للتقلص النسبي.

17. Holmium energy of second ionization

و2nd ionization energy of Holmium is 1140 KJ/mol because, in the 2nd التأين ، تتم إزالة الإلكترونات من نفس المدار 6s. على 2nd ionization, Ho does not lose its stability but the 2nd electron is removed from the excited state so it required much energy.

18. Holmium energy of third ionization

The third ionization energy for Holmium is 2204 KJ/mol because the third ionization occurs from 4f which has a poor shielding effect so the energy required is very high as Ho lacks 5d orbital.

19. Holmium oxidation states

+3 is the common oxidation state of lanthanide elements. But Holmium shows 0, +1, +2, +3, oxidation state because of the availability of electrons in its 6s and 4f orbitals and all the above oxidation state is stable for Ho.

20. Holmium CAS number

The CAS number of the Holmium molecule is 7440-60-0، والتي تقدمها خدمة الملخصات الكيميائية.

21. Holmium Chem Spider ID

The Chem Spider ID for Holmium is 22424. By using this number, we can evaluate all the chemical data related to the Holmium atom.

22. Holmium allotropic forms

مقويات are elements or molecules with similar chemical properties but different physical properties. Let us discuss the allotropic form of Holmium.

Holmium has no allotropic form rather it has a poor shielding effect.

23. Holmium chemical classification

Holmium is classified into the following categories:

  • Ho is the rare earth element
  • Ho is lanthanide soft metal
  • Ho is a basic oxide

24. Holmium state at room temperature

Holmium exists in a solid at room temperature because it exists in the double hexagonal close-packed lattice structure.

25. Is Holmium paramagnetic?

البارامغناطيسية is the tendency of magnetization in the direction of the magnetic field. Let us see whether Holmium is paramagnetic or not.

Holmium is paramagnetic because it has three unpaired electrons in its 4f and due to heavier elements, the magnetic moment not only depends on spin-only value but also there is some orbital contribution present.

في الختام

Holmium is a lanthanide metal element having the highest magnetic permeability and highest magnetic saturation. Due to the presence of more f electrons, it can form large amounts of organometallic compounds.

بيسواروب شاندرا داي

مرحبًا ...... أنا بيسواروب شاندرا داي ، لقد أكملت الماجستير في الكيمياء. تخصصي هو الكيمياء غير العضوية. الكيمياء لا تدور حول القراءة سطراً بسطر والحفظ ، إنه مفهوم يجب فهمه بطريقة سهلة وهنا أشارككم مفهوم الكيمياء الذي أتعلمه لأن المعرفة تستحق مشاركتها.

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