خصائص الديسبروسيوم (25 حقيقة يجب أن تعرفها)


Dysprosium is a rare earth element from the lanthanide series which does not have a free existence. Let us study it in detail in this article.

Dysprosium is a silvery white lustrous soft metal that is found in the mineral xenotime. Commercially, it is extracted from yttrium as the side product and has applications in nuclear chemistry due to high القابلية المغناطيسية.

Dysprosium alone has little applicative usage but in combination with other elements, it can be used in lasers, commercial lightning, hard discs, turbine generators, etc. Let us analyze various periodic facts related to it like group, period, electronegativity, etc.

Dysprosium symbol

The symbol of dysprosium in the periodic table is Dy which uses the first two letters of the element.

dysprosium properties
Symbolic and atomic representation of dysprosium

Dysprosium group in the periodic table

Dysprosium-like rare earth elements do not have a group as it belongs to the اللانثانيد series situated below the main group periodic table.

Dysprosium period in the periodic table

Dysprosium is situated in فترة 6 of the periodic table.

Dysprosium block in the periodic table

Dysprosium belongs to the و - بلوك (fundamental) of the periodic table and belongs to the lanthanide series under the name rare earth elements.

Dysprosium atomic number

يوفر العدد الذري of dysprosium is 66.

Dysprosium atomic weight

The atomic weight of dysprosium is 162.50 u.

Dysprosium Electronegativity according to Pauling

يوفر كهرسلبية of dysprosium is 1.22 according to the Pauling scale which is low as it is a metal and exhibits electropositivity.

Dysprosium atomic density

The atomic density of dysprosium is 8.540 g/cm3.

Dysprosium melting point

The melting point of dysprosium is 1407 degree celsius which is quite high implying its difficulty in melting.

Dysprosium boiling point

The boiling point of dysprosium is 2562 degree celsius which like its melting point is high and explains its rigidity and hardness.

Dysprosium van der waals radius

The vanderwaal radius of dysprosium is 235 pm.

Dysprosium ionic/covalent radius

Dysprosium exhibits a نصف القطر التساهمي of 192 pm with an error of +7 or -7.

Dysprosium isotopes

نظائر belong to the same family of elements with only differences in the number of neutrons and nuclear properties. Let us find the isotopes in dysprosium.

Dysprosium has 7 naturally occurring isotopes and 29 النظائر المشعة synthesized artificially between atomic numbers 138 and 173. The most common isotopes of dysprosium along with their abundance levels are:

  • 154Dy (syn)
  • 156Dy (0.056%)
  • 158Dy (0.095%)
  • 160Dy (2.329%)
  • 161Dy (18.889%)
  • 162Dy (25.475%)
  • 163Dy (24.896%)
  • 164Dy (28.260%)

Dysprosium electronic shells

The concept of electron shells is a large perspective of electron distribution based on the principle of quantum number. Let us understand it for dysprosium.

Dysprosium has 6 electronic shells or energy levels where the electrons are distributed according to the octet rule 2, 8, 18, 28, 8, 2.

Dysprosium energy of first ionization

The energy of the first ionization of dysprosium is 573 KJ/mol which is quite low making dysprosium easy to react to.

Dysprosium energy of second ionization

The energy of the second ionization of dysprosium is 1130 KJ/mol which is higher than the first one due to the stability of s orbital.

Dysprosium energy of third ionization

The energy of the third ionization of dysprosium is 2200 KJ/mol which is the highest as the electrons will be lost from the penultimate f shell which becomes difficult due to nuclear effects.

Dysprosium oxidation states

Dysprosium has 5 الأكسدة 0, +1, +2, +3, and +4 which can easily form weakly basic oxides. Out of all the oxidation states, only +2 and +3 can easily form binary compounds.

Dysprosium electron configuration

The electron configuration of dysprosium is [Xe]4f106s2 where Xe is the noble gas xenon.

Dysprosium CAS number

يوفر عدد CAS of dysprosium is 7429-91-6.

Dysprosium ChemSpider ID

The ChemSpider ID of dysprosium is 161261.

Dysprosium allotropic forms

Allotropic forms of any element discuss the variation in the arrangement of the individual atoms which are influenced by many other conditions. Let us see the same for dysprosium.

Dysprosium has its existence in three allotropic forms. The three allotropic forms of dysprosium and their crystal structure depiction are:

  • Alpha-Dy (closed-packed hexagonal)
  • Beta-Dy (orthorhombic closed-packed hexagonal)
  • Gamma-Dy (body-centered cubic)

Dysprosium chemical classification

The chemical properties depicting dysprosium are:

  • The luster of dysprosium is maintained in dry air but in moist air, it forms oxide.
  • The reaction of dysprosium with cold water is quite slow but it quickly reacts with hot water due to its electropositive nature.
  • الدسبروزيوم عنصر فلزي can easily undergo coordination complexation forming [Dy (OH2)9]3+ مركب.
  • Dysprosium is a flammable material that cannot be extinguished with water because it shows a reaction with water forming hydrogen gas.

Dysprosium state at room temperature

The dysprosium state at room temperature is solid following STP though it is soft, and the presence of few impurities can affect its properties to great lengths.

Is Dysprosium paramagnetic?

Magnetism as an elemental property depends on magnetic ordering and temperature conditions. Let us analyze dysprosium on the same grounds.

Dysprosium is مغناطيسي as it has high magnetic strength and exhibits المغناطيسية الحديدية below 85K, and helical Anti ferromagnetism above 85K which further transforms into paramagnetism at 300K.

في الختام

In a nutshell, dysprosium is a rare earth element belonging to the lanthanide series which exhibits f-block elements properties and can show a high level of magnetic and nuclear applications.

منسي شارما

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