Does Copper Conduct Electricity? 7 Facts (Why, How & Uses)

The majority of copper-based products are utilized in electrical system components including wire and motors. In this piece, let us talk about whether copper can conduct electricity or not.

A matter with excellent electrical conductivity is copper. The matter must battle resistance in order to get a significant amount of electrical current flowing from a power source. As copper has a limited range of resistance more electrical conductivity translates into a reduced range of resistivity.

As copper has excellent electrical and thermal conductivity and the ability to be formed into wires, it is utilized in a broad variety of electrical devices. Let us continue to talk about copper’s ability to conduct electricity in this article.

Why does copper conduct electricity?

The symbol of Copper is Cu. Let us look at why copper conducts electricity.

Copper conducts electricity since it is a metal that has free electrons that are free to travel inside as well as the surface of the metal. Copper has the property of high conductivity of electricity.

Properties of copper

The element copper is indeed not magnetic. Let us just delve into more detail about copper’s properties.

  • Copper has an atomic mass of 63.546 u and an atomic number of 29.
  • Freshly exposed copper is a rosy orange color.
  • In addition to being ductile, malleable, and having strong thermal and electrical conductivity, copper is a metal.
  • Copper glows green due to an oxidation reaction.
  • Copper has an electron configuration of [Ar] 3d104s1.
  • Copper has a density of 8.96 gram per cubic centimeter when it is solid.
  • Copper has a melting point of 1357.77 Kelvin and a boiling point of 2835 Kelvin, respectively.
  • Copper turns in blue color after a flammable test.
  • Covalent radius of the copper is 117.

Does the conductivity of copper vary with temperature?

The kinetic energy of ions in a conductor depends upon the temperature. Let us see if the temperature affects the conductivity of copper.

The temperature of the copper has a directly proportional relationship with its conductivity, it rises with rising global temperatures and falls with dropping temperatures. The temperature really does have a consequence on the conductivity of copper metal.

Image – Molten copper;
حقوق الصورة - ويكيبيديا

In the picture, copper just above its melting point keeps its pink luster color when enough light outshines the orange incandescence color.

Why is copper a good conductor of heat?

Metals don’t chemically react with heat but rather physically. Let us elaborate on what makes copper a good conductor of heat.

Copper is considered to be an excellent heat conductor because copper is a chemical element with more free electrons than those other components. The electric current will flow from one region of an atom to another and is transported by any of these unpaired electrons.

What is the resistance of a copper wire?

The ohm, which is defined as a volt per meter, is the SI unit for resistance. Let us just discuss the copper wire’s resistance.

The resistance of a wire made of copper can be expressed as R = ρ L/A. In this expression, ρ is expressed as the المقاومة النوعية of copper and its value stands at 1.68 10-8 Ω m. In the expression, L stands for the wire’s length; A for its cross-sectional area, and R is resistance.

As the density of the electric flux drops with the increasing cross-sectional area, the resistance of a copper wire is inversely linked to its cross-sectional area. Reduced wire temperature will result in decreased resistance since wire temperature directly relates to wire temperature.

Uses of copper as an electric conductor

Copper can be utilized in electronic equipment and devices because it is a good conductor of heat and electricity. Let us talk about various applications of copper as an electric conductor.

How to calculate electric conductivity of copper?

The SI unit for electrical conductivity is Siemens per meter. Let us just analyze how to measure copper’s electrical conductivity.

  • Using the formula σ = 1/ ρ, the electrical conductivity of copper (σ) is determined; ρ the resistivity is represented here.
  • The formula for calculating the material’s resistivity is ρ = (RA)/L.
  • This formula allows us to write the electrical conductivity expression as, ρ = L/(RA).

While R is the resistance of the object, A is also its surface, and L is the span of a conduit within which the induced electric lines are parallel across its length. It relates the wire’s length and the resistivity of the copper directly.

بيان المشكلة مع الحل 1

If the resistivity of copper at 25 degrees centigrade is 1.75 10-8 ohm meters, calculate the net quantity of direct current resistance of a 100 meter roll of 2.7 square millimeter copper wires.

البيانات المعطاة هي ،

Resistivity (ρ) of the copper at 25 degree centigrade is 1.75 10-8 ohm meters.

Length of the coil (L) = 100 meter.

Cross sectional area of the conductor (A) = 2.7 square millimeter = 2.7 × 10-6 متر مربع.

The expression for the resistivity of the copper we can write,

R = ρ L/A

R = (1.75 ×10-8 ) × 100/2.7 × 10-6

R = 648 ohm meters.

So, the net quantity of direct current resistance is 648 ohm meters.

Problem statement with solution 2

Determine the conductivity of the cobalt cable. The cross sectional area of a cable approximately 25 meters long roughly 1.2 square millimeters. The resistance of the copper cable is 6 ohms.

البيانات المعطاة هي ،

Direct resistance (R) = 5 ohms

Length of the cable (L) = 25 meters

Cross sectional area of the conductor (A) = 1.2 square millimeter = 1.2 × 10-6 متر مربع

From the expression of the resistivity of the copper we can write,

R = ρ L/A

Now arranging the formula we get,

ρ = L/RA

وضع القيم ،

ρ = 25/5 × 1.2× 10-6

ρ = 4 mega – Siemens per meter length.

So, the conductivity of the cobalt cable is 4 mega – Siemens per meter length.

في الختام

This article has demonstrated the superior electrical conductivity of copper. The ability of a material to conduct electric current is measured by its electrical conductivity, also known as specific conductivity. High conductivity refers to a material’s ability to easily conduct electricity, the conductivity of copper varies with the temperature.

إندراني بانيرجي

مرحباً .. أنا إندراني بانيرجي. أكملت درجة البكالوريوس في الهندسة الميكانيكية. أنا شخص متحمس وأنا شخص إيجابي حول كل جانب من جوانب الحياة. أحب قراءة الكتب والاستماع إلى الموسيقى. دعنا نتواصل من خلال LinkedIn-https: //

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