Carbon is basically the chemical element symbolized by the letter C and it also has the atomic number 6. Let us discuss the facts of carbon and its conduction of electricity.
Carbon does conduct electricity based on the availability of the free charged particles in its outermost shell. So, here the charged particles are known to be the electrons that are free and ready to pair.
Carbon is one of the few elements making all the four electrons in the atom available for covalent bonding. Let us now discuss the facts of how كربون conducts electricity and also the properties of carbon aiding the process.
How is carbon an electrical conductor?
Graphite and diamond are the allotropes of carbon. Let us see the different ways carbon can conduct electricity.
Carbon conducts electricity in other forms such as graphite. Graphite has high thermal الموصلية and also electric conductivity. Graphite is made of atoms of carbon that have pairs of electrons in the outermost shell and this is how carbon conducts electricity.
Graphite is a very good absorber of light. Due to its high stiffness and the ability to withhold high temperatures, it is also a very good conductor of electricity.
Why does carbon conduct electricity?
Conduction basically requires a small band gap for the flow of electrons. Let us find out the process when a carbon conducts electricity.
Carbon conducts electricity due to the loosely bounded electrons in the outermost shells. The band gap is said to be large in carbon so the conduction of electricity or heat is low. The energy gap for carbon is 5.4ev and when the size decreases the band gap increases so conduction is merely possible.
What is the electric conductivity of carbon?
Carbons have electrons in it which move in free space providing the process of electric conduction. Let us see what the electric conductivity of carbon is.
The electric conductivity of graphite is found to be ~104 سم سم-1 since it is an allotrope of carbon. Due to the high electric conductivity of graphite and its high electrical performance it is used in electrodes for batteries, also in electrochemical reactions.
Diamond also one of the allotropes of carbon but this does not seem to have free electrons due to which electric conductivity is not possible.
Is carbon a good electric conductor?
The properties for a good electric conductor is that it should have high resistance to corrosion of liquid. Let us now discuss few facts regarding whether carbon is a good electric conductor or not.
Carbon is not a good conductor compared to the other elements in the period table especially with that of copper, since carbon always has the electron in the outermost shell being loosely bound. It is the reason why covalent bonds are formed and no dissociation occurs in carbon due to this fact.
Why carbon is poor electric conductor?
Carbon is used as an alternator in slip rings, in the form of graphite. Let us see the reason as why carbon is the poor electric conductor.
Carbon is a poor conductor because it has a crystal structure that is suitable for conducting electricity but in comparison with other materials, the conduction is way too poor.
Structure and bonding of carbon
Structure and bonding of carbon mainly depend on the electrons present in the outermost shell. Let us discuss the structure and bonding of carbon.
- Structure: Carbon has an atomic number (Z=6), two electrons in the innermost shell, and the remaining four in the next shell. The atomic radius of carbon is said to be 170pm.
- Bonding: Occurs when the pair of electrons in the outermost shell of the atom due to which weak forces exist between them. Carbon is a reducing agent since the atoms in it increase from +2, +4 and so. Since carbon is a nonmetal it will combine with the oxygen atoms and produce non-metallic oxides.
Properties of carbon
Carbon is basically a non-metal having electronic configuration [He] 2s2 2p2. Let us brief out few other properties of carbon for better understanding.
- Carbon has a melting point of value 3652 °C and the value of its boiling point is 4827 °C.
- One of the unique properties of carbon is isomerism. Isomerism is the term used when an element has the same number of molecules of the same atom but differs in its chemical and physical properties.
- Carbon has allotropes that are missing in many other elements.
- Carbon appears in a dull grey color.
- The purest forms of carbon are soot and coal. Coal is used as fuel for locomotives.
- Carbon when burnt in the air results in the production of carbon dioxide.
Uses of carbon as electrical conductor
Form of carbon or transitions of carbon is used as fuels for transport and Energy applications. Let us find out the uses of carbon for its conductivity.
- Carbon is used as a conductive agent, the reason being some electrochemical electrode materials are non-conductive in terms of electricals so in order to aid the process carbon black is been used.
- Carbon is a chemically inert agent so it can be of great use to the non-conductive electrodes in order to start the chemical process.
- Carbon is used as current collectors in electrochemical cells, namely fuel cells, and batteries.
- Carbon is an element present in all materials that we use in our day-to-day activities. The food we eat, clothes we wear etc. all comprise some form of carbon in it.
- Coal the purest form of carbon is used as fuel for locomotives and it is used to generate electric power.
How can carbon be used as insulator?
Insulators are materials that act as a barrier in an energy circuit restricting the flow of energy in the system. Let us find out how carbon can be used as an insulator.
Carbon has been used as an insulator because of the fact that carbon has a long energy gap of value (5.4 eV). So, the gap between the valance band and the conduction band is very large. It contributes to the point that carbon can be used as an insulator.
Carbon-based materials act as insulators since they have very low thermal conductivity. In an excessive heat-based mechanism, the carbon-based elements keep the whole system cool.
Does carbon conduct heat?
Thermal conductivity mainly depends on the temperature of the material, density, and moisture too. Let us detail out the facts whether carbon conducts heat or not.
Carbon conducts heat due to the unique electronic property where it can both accept and donate electrons. The conduction band in carbon carry free electrons which transport freely inside the structure and carry the thermal energy along with it.
Carbon is an element which has the ability to be present in different forms unlike other elements. It is a non-metal so the conduction of electricity is possible to certain extent keeping in mind its chemical and physical properties. Talking about heat, carbon has high thermal conductivity due to the electrons loosely bound. Carbon is an important element contributing to so many applications in science.