Antimony is a gray-colored lustrous ميتالويد that is found mainly as Sb2S3. Let us focus on the chemical properties of antimony.
Antimony is refined industrially from stibnite by roasting and followed by reduction in presence of carbon or direct reduction of stibnite with iron. It is a hard, brittle metalloid compound. Elemental antimony possesses a layered structure that consists of a fused, ruffled six-membered ring.
Let us describe the group and period of antimony in the periodic table, melting as well as boiling point, isotopes, allotropes, ionization energies, and chemical classification with detailed explanations.
A chemical symbol is a short form or abbreviation used to write or describe a chemical element. Let us search for the symbol of antimony.
The chemical symbol of antimony is Sb. This short form comes from the Latin name “Stibium”.
Antimony Group in Periodic Table
The atoms belonging to the same group (vertical column in the periodic table) possess similar valence shell electronic configurations. Let us explore the group of Sb.
Antimony belongs to group 15 of the periodic table. It is placed between arsenic (As) and bismuth (Bi).
Antimony Period in Periodic Table
The atoms placed in the same period (horizontal rows in the periodic table) show an equal number of electron shells in the outer part of the nucleus. Let us discuss it.
The group number of antimony is 5 in the periodic table, and it is placed between tin (Sn) and tellurium (Te).
Antimony Block in Periodic Table
A block in the periodic table consists of a set of elements having similar atomic orbitals, valence electrons, etc. Let us see the clock of antimony.
Antimony belongs to the p-block because it has a partially filled p-block (5p3) in its electron configuration.
Antimony Atomic Number
The atomic number is a unique property of an element because no two different elements have the same number of protons in their nucleus. Let us check the atomic numbers of Sb.
Antimony has an atomic number of 51 which indicates it has 51 protons in its nucleus.
Antimony Atomic Weight
Atomic weight is determined by the total number of protons and neutrons along with consideration of the nuclear binding energy. Let us find out the atomic weight of Sb.
The atomic weight of antimony is 121.76 amu (atomic mass unit).
Antimony Electronegativity according to Pauling
Determination of electronegativity of the element becomes significant to determine the bond polarity between the bond-forming atoms. Let us discuss it.
Antimony has electronegativity on the Pauling scale is 2.05. But in Sanderson’s scale and Allred Rochow’s scale, the value of electronegativity is 2.46 and 1.82 respectively.
Antimony Atomic Density
Atomic density depends on the atomic mass and the atomic volume of an element because atomic density is expressed as the ratio of the above two terms. Let us calculate it for Sb.
Antimony has an atomic density of 6.691 g/cm3.
Antimony Melting Point
The melting point or liquefaction point is a definite temperature at which the solid and liquid state of an element exists in equilibrium. Let us find it.
Antimony has a relatively higher melting point of 630.630 C or 903.78 K.
Antimony Boiling Point
The boiling point is a particular temperature at which the liquid phase exists in equilibrium with the gas phase of that element. Let us see the boiling point of antimony.
Antimony possesses a very high boiling point of 16350 C أو 29750 F.
Antimony Van der Waals Radius
نصف قطر فان دير فال is the closest distance between two atoms that are not attached through bonds. Let us calculate the Van der Waals radius of Sb.
The Van der Waals radius of antimony is 206 pm or 0.206 nm but it has an atomic radius of 153 pm.
Antimony Ionic/Covalent Radius
The ionic radius of antimony is 90 pm for Sb3+ ions and 74 pm for Sb5+ ions. Antimony has a covalent radius of 140 pm.
The isotopes are two or more forms of an element having the same number of protons. Let us find out the isotopes of the antimony.
|نظائر||Abundance (in%)||وضع الاضمحلال|
Antimony Electronic Shell
An atom contains many electronic shells (energy states to place electrons) outside the nucleus. Let us see the electron shells and number of electrons in those energy states.
Antimony has a total of five electronic shells present because it has the highest principal quantum number, n=5. There are 2, 8, 18, 18, and 5 electrons revolving in those respective shells.
Antimony Energy of First Ionization
The energy required to form the X+ (unipositive) ion from a neutral atom, X is known as the first ionization energy. Let us check it.
Antimony has the first ionization energy of 834 KJ/mol.
Antimony Energy of Second Ionization
The energy needed to form the X2+ (dipositive ion) ion from an X+ (unipositive ion) ion is defined as the second ionization energy. Let us find it.
The second ionization energy of antimony is 1594.9 KJ/mol.
Antimony Energy of Third Ionization
The energy needed to form the X3+ (tri-positive) ion from an X2+ ion is known as the third ionization energy. Let us check it.
The third ionization energy of antimony is 2440 KJ/mol.
Antimony Oxidation States
يوفر حالة الأكسدة or the oxidation number gives a clear idea of the extent of oxidation or reduction of the element. Let us discuss it in detail.
Antimony form compounds at its four oxidation states. They are –
- +3 (most common and most stable)
- +5 (most common and most stable)
Antimony Electron Configurations
Electron configuration illustrates the arrangement of electrons in the different shells of the atom. Let us explain it.
Antimony has a total of 51 electrons revolving around its nucleus. They are arranged in their five electron shells in this way – [Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p3.
Antimony CAS Number
CAS registry is a unique numeric identifier, and it designates only one compound. Let us find it out for antimony.
The CAS registry number of antimony is 7440-36-0.
Antimony ChemSpider ID
ChemSpider ID, a free structural database, provides properties, spectral analysis, synthetic information, and many more things of an element. Let us check it.
Antimony has the ChemSpider ID 4510681.
Antimony Allotropic Forms
Allotropic forms are the different forms of an element that exist in the same physical state. These allotropes differ in their structure and nature. Let us check the allotropes of Sb.
Antimony exists in four allotropic forms on the earth. They are-
- Most stable grey colored metallic allotrope.
- Non-metallic yellow allotrope.
- Black allotrope
- White allotrope (most unstable)
Antimony Chemical Classification
The chemical classification describes the categorization done by checking the chemical, physical, and structural properties of an atom. Let us do it with a proper explanation.
Antimony is chemically classified as a p-block metalloid element (having metallic and nonmetallic properties). It is also known as a بنتكتوجين element (nitrogen group element or group-15 element).
Antimony State at Room Temperature
The state of any atom decided from its melting and boiling point, can be of three types, solid, liquid, and gas. Let us check whether antimony exists as a solid, liquid, or gas.
Antimony exists as a solid compound at room temperature. The metallic form of antimony is hard and brittle but the nonmetallic form of it is a grey powder.
Is antimony paramagnetic?
البارامغناطيسية is proved by the presence of unpaired electron(s) and the paramagnetic compound is attracted by the external magnetic field. Let us check it.
Antimony is a paramagnetic compound due to the presence of three unpaired electrons in its 5p orbital. These unpaired electrons are weakly attracted by the externally applied magnetic field.
Antimony has different uses in various fields. Most of the antimony (60%) is applied in flame retardants (as the trioxide for flame-proofing compounds) and the rest of the 40% antimony is used in alloys of batteries, plain bearings, and solders.